The incredible order and even beauty that the universe displays raises the question, how did this happen? There seem to be two possible answers: either the universe came out this way by chance, or someone intended it to be like this. That the universe is this way purely because the physical laws give no other option doesn’t seem to be feasible because there appear to be genuinely free parameters (physical constants whose precise value is not determined for any known reason) that govern the properties of the universe.
The idea that the universe is ordered this way purely by chance does not seem likely either, because the odds of it having the specific features that it does (ones that allow us to exist), are so low as to make it miraculous. Many books by Paul Davies, Martin Rees, and other non-Christians detail these incredible “fine tuning” and “Goldilocks” factors, but hesitate to reach a theistic conclusion because it’s so culturally unpopular. It takes courage to question naturalism, but it definitely appears that the heavens are declaring the glory of God.
There are a growing number of factors that create this sense of fine-tuning, such as the early expansion rate of the universe, quark to electron mass ratios, the ratio between the strong nuclear force and the electromagnetic force, the ratio between gravitational and electrical forces, and the overall balance of electrical charge in the universe. This awesome fine-tuning points us to a Creator, as Romans 1:20 suggests.
John Bloom, Ph.D. is a professor of Physics and the Director of the Science and Religion Program at the Talbot School of Theology, Biola University.
Professor Blooms Recommended Further Readings on the Topic:
Bloom, John A., The Natural Sciences: A Student's Guide
Lewis, Geraint F. and Barnes, Luke A., A Fortunate Universe: Life in a Finely Tuned Cosmos.